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Acceptable Use Policy (AUP)

A policy designed to describe the ways in which technology equipment may be used. This can include statements about the required procedures, rights, and responsibilities of the user.

A use agreement should be certified by the user’s signature. They can be put in place by schools, employers or in a simple form as a Family Internet Contract.


Adware is software that may have been installed on your computer by a remote website.

Many free utilities that you download from the Internet will install hidden software that sends details of the websites you visit and other information from your computer (which can include your email address) to advertisers so they can target you with popup ads and spam.

Anti-Virus Software

Software which protects your computer or smartphone from viruses and other malware. Can be bundled with anti-spyware, anti-phishing and link checking tools into Internet Security Suites.

Both free and paid for versions are available from a range of suppliers. Definition files – which help identify the latest viruses being released – must be regularly updated for the software to work effectively.

App or Application

An application is a computer program used to accomplish specific tasks not contained in the computer’s operating system (for example, word processors, spreadsheets, and graphics programs).

Free and paid for ‘apps’ can also be installed on popular smartphone platforms and you should always ensure you only download from official marketplaces and read what phone features they want permission to access.


Refers to a file included with an email. Some file formats such as .zip, .exe, .xls or .jpg can be used to deliver malware or virus infections to unprotected computers.

Be suspicious of attachments sent with unexpected emails or spam messages and scan any attachments with up to date anti-virus software before opening.


The term used to refer to the graphical representation of a person’s alter ego, common in many role playing games and social networking sites.

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A backup is created during the process of making copies of important data or files to other storage media (CDs/USBs) or to an online ‘cloud’ storage location.

You should ideally make several backups and store them in varied locations so you are prepared should something go wrong with your computer.

Backing up is a key part of computer security and can help you recover following a burglary, virus infection or natural disaster.


The amount of data that can be transferred during a given timeframe.

Bandwidth theft describes the act of using a network to access the internet without authorisation and can often occur on a wireless network that has not been properly secured with strong encryption and a long passphrase.

Banner Advertisement

A graphical advert on a website linked to the paying advertiser’s own external website.


A blacklist is a list of websites or terms which have been identified as inappropriate by a filter.

This filtering can also be applied on a mobile phone network to block cyberbullies.


Short for web log and similar to an online diary, often open for anyone to view. Often used by schoolchildren to describe their classrooms activities and communicate with other students worldwide.


A botnet or ‘zombie army’ is a network of computers (or bots) that are infected with malicious software and controlled as a group without the knowledge of their owners.

They can be used by a botmaster or bot herder to: send spam emails containing viruses or worms; harvest login or credit card information; perform denial of service attacks.

Botnets grow by exploiting common computer weaknesses and it is important to keep your operating system and all applications patched and updated to avoid infection.


A software application used to locate and display web pages. Popular web browsers include Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer and Safari.

It is important to use an up to date browser to avoid drive by download infections. The latest versions often include anti-spam and anti-phishing functions and can enhance your privacy whilst surfing.

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Every visited webpage and most of its content, including text and graphics, is stored by the computer in an area called the cache.

This enables the page to be displayed faster if the user returns to the page later. The cache can be emptied, but the information remains on the hard drive until it is wiped.


Communicating online, usually live, using one on one communications services such as instant messaging (IM), IRC, Facebook or Skype.


A computer that has been infected by malware or is under the control of an unauthorised user is considered to be compromised.


Also known as digital citizenship – more than just having the technical capacity to use technology. It also includes having the skills to access, analyse, evaluate and create online content, protect personal or identifying information, practice courteous and responsible behavior towards other cybercitizens, and manage potentially risky or dangerous situations.


The safe and responsible use of ICT – NetSafe has many resources to improve cybersafety in school, workplaces and the home.


The metaphorical space of computer systems and networks in which electronic data are stored and online communication takes place.


Stalking-type behaviors which take place in cyberspace. Examples can include the sending of excessive, unwanted emails or posting unwanted messages or comments on social networking sites.

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The acronym of the Department of Internal Affairs who enforce New Zealand’s anti-spam law, ensure censorship compliance and oversee online identity programmes including igovt

Digital Footprint

Refers to the trail a person leaves behind through their activities on the Internet e.g. sites they visit, photos they upload, and social networking interactions. Can be a problem for young people who do not realize that their actions in cyberspace are usually not erased with time.


In the online environment, people may feel that they can be less careful than they might be in an offline environment.

Domain Name

Domain names are used in Universal Resource Locators (URLs) to identify particular web pages or sites located on the Internet. For example, the domain name netsafe.org.nz represents the website for NetSafe.

The ownership of a domain name can often be researched by performing a ‘Whois’ search (www.whois.net) allowing you to evaluate the length of time a website has been in existence and the people or company behind the site.

A private or anonymous registration record or newly established site could indicate suspicious behaviour.


Refers to the process of receiving information via electronic means.

Take care to always download files from reputable sources – ensure you scan downloads with anti-virus software before opening and avoid downloading files from web links sent to you in spam or phishing emails as they may be designed to infect your computer with malware.

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Short for electronic-mail, and refers to the electronic transmission of personal or group messages.

It’s important to protect your email account with a strong password, especially if you use a free webmail service and to avoid the common phishing tactic of confirming your login details by clicking on the link in a spam or fake email message.

Sending out spam or phishing messages is a common way for cyber criminals to gain access to your account to then send further spam or scam messages to your friends and family.


Encryption is a method of scrambling data so that it cannot be read without knowing the password or ‘key’ to unscramble it.

Sensitive data stored on laptops or backup media should be encrypted to keep personal or business information private and secure.

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The most popular social networking site which started life as a tool for American university students and now numbers hundreds of millions of users.

The company has strong policies for online safety and you should report offensive content using the website tools and also report fake or abusive profiles or pages.

Given the number of members and the speed at which messages can be spread, you should be aware that cyber criminals increasingly target Facebook with spam and malware links.


Stands for Frequently Asked Questions. Many websites will have an FAQ section so that people can find information themselves, especially help and contact information.

On the NetSafe website you can view popular questions that are answered in-depth.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

A standard Internet protocol for transferring files from one computer to another. You should try and use a secure form of FTP when connecting to encrypt your login and data.


Filtering is the process of controlling access to a network by analysing the incoming and outgoing packets. A filter lets the packets pass, or not pass, based on the IP addresses of the source and/or destination. E-mail messages and websites can also be filtered based on content and/or file type.


A firewall is an electronic boundary (or a physical piece of hardware) that prevents unauthorised users and packets of data or information (such as files and programs) from accessing a protected system.

You should ensure your computer’s firewall is turned on to help prevent common computer system attacks.


Refers to the act of making deliberately insulting comments via online mediums. A ‘flame war’ occurs when such comments are traded backwards and forwards.

Forensic audit

A forensic audit is an audit of computer systems by a forensic specialist.

A forensic auditor will uncover extremely detailed information about how a computer system has been used, and can be invaluable during the investigation of a serious cybersafety or security incident.


In social networking terms this can refer to contacts, and does not necessarily mean friends like the offline sense. For example, on social networking sites, accepting a stranger’s invitation will add them to your ‘friend’ list.

Younger internet users should be encouraged to only ‘friend’ people they know or have met in real life and to not give out personal data or share photos with new online friends.

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Gaming console

Refers to the machine which games run on, e.g. PlayStation, Xbox and Wii.

These consoles can normally go online to allow players to shop for or download new games, chat with other players or compete as part of a multiplayer team.

Parents should be aware that they allow full internet access and can explore parental control settings to restrict content choices.


Grooming is when a person tries to ‘set up’ and ‘prepare’ another person to be the victim of sexual abuse.

If you have concerns about online grooming you can contact NetSafe or the Police OCEANZ team.

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Often used negatively to describe people who exploit weaknesses in existing computer programs or systems for malicious purposes. It can also be used positively to describe people who are respected by peers for their program and system building skills.


Refers to the process of using computer skills, either positively or negatively, to explore software and system vulnerabilities.


Unwelcome behaviour directed at another person – online harassment is a term often used to describe cyberbullying of adults.

Refer to The Harassment Act 1997 for a legal definition and always call the Police on 111 to report serious or life threatening harassment.

Hard drive

The device within most computers which is used to store all of the data and programs available.

The hard drive can be encrypted to protect the contents should a computer be lost or stolen.


In terms of computers, hardware is the physical material, e.g. monitor, hard-drive, circuitry, USB stick, etc.

To maintain computer security, you should restrict access to hardware to only those people who are authorised to use it.

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Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)

ICT is a broad term used to refer to any technology that could be considered a communication device including radio, internet and satellite systems. ICT is used to denote technological devices like computers, mobile phones, wireless internet enabled devices and gaming consoles.

Instant Messaging (IM)

Refers to live, text-based communication between two or more people. This feature is now offered by many websites to allow users to chat in realtime.

Internet or Cyber Cafés

Businesses where several computers are available to rent on site, usually for accessing the internet. The computers may also be linked to one another to allow users to play multi-player games.

You should ensure when using a public internet cafe computer that you do not store password or login details in the browser – it is beneficial to delete your browsing history, cookies and other login data to avoid anyone else from gaining access to your accounts.

Internet Service Provider (ISP)

An ISP is a company that provides commercial access to the internet. For example, Telecom, Vodafone and Orcon are all New Zealand ISPs.

ISPs may also provide web hosting and other services and should be your first point of contact when experiencing slow internet speeds.


An intranet is a private, internal network that provides users access to files, applications, and services within a school or workplace without needing to go ‘out’ onto the Internet.

IP Address (IP)

An IP address is a numerical identifier for a computer or device on a TCP/IP network. (TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol).

You should be aware that your internet activity is frequently logged according to your computer’s IP address and this can be used to identify you if you break New Zealand laws.

TCP/IP networks route messages according to the destinations’ IP addresses. Within a private network, IP addresses can be assigned at random as long as each one is unique. However, connecting a private network to the Internet requires using publicly registered IP addresses (called Internet addresses) to avoid duplications.


Short for Internet Relay Chat, which is a form of instant messaging, where users can talk in chat rooms or send private messages to other users.


Short for Information Technology, and refers to those involved in the implementation and security of computer-based information systems.

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Both a programming language and computing platform that powers games and business applications that run on PCs and mobile and TV devices.

Some websites or applications won’t work unless you have Java (or the Java Virtual Machine) installed.

The software is free to download and you should ensure your machine is up to date and running the latest version to avoid common security issues.


A common format for photographic images stored on computers.

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A key stroke logger is a type of software or hardware that records which keys are pressed on a computer keyboard. They are often used as a form of spyware, and can transmit private information to third parties, without the knowledge of the computer owner.

The hardware version can plug into the back of a computer; the software version can be difficult to detect so it’s essential you keep your computer up to date and use security software to frequently scan for this spyware.

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Local Area Network (LAN)

A LAN is a linkage of computers and/or peripherals (such as printers) confined to a limited area that allows users to communicate and share information.

Login/logging in

Refers to the process of confirming your username and password in order to gain access to a website e.g. email or internet banking. A login should also be used to access a computer.

To keep your login details secure, you should try to use sites that use encryption or offer a secure SSL connection – look for https:// in your browser address bar.

Never click on links in emails, chat or text messages that encourage you to enter your login details for a website, especially your online banking. Always type out the full address yourself.

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Malicious software such as Trojans, Viruses, Worms and Spyware that is designed to exploit vulnerabilities in your computer operating systems and any software you have installed.

Malware writers target popular systems and software that powers computers, websites and smartphones so it is important to keep all your devices fully updated.


Stands for Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game. MMORPGs differ from other multi-player games by having large numbers of players, and by taking place in what is known as a persistent world.

A persistent world is a virtual world which changes, both while the player is participating in the game, and when they are not. This is similar to the real world, which continues to change while we are sleeping.


A common format for videos stored on computers.


A type of game which allows many players to play together. Gameplay can be cooperative or competitive.

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Short for network etiquette and essentially covers politeness for electronic communications, e.g. not typing messages ALL IN UPPERCASE as it can be seen as shouting, and rude.


Basically means a citizen of the internet, but tends to have positive connotations, such as someone whose interactions are intended to better the internet in some way, e.g. by sharing ideas in the interests of intellectual growth.


A group of computers connected to each other to share computer software, data, communications and peripheral devices like printers. Commonly, a network is considered to include the hardware and software needed to connect the computers together.


Similar to chat rooms in that they allow discussion about specific topics. A specific program – called a newsreader – is required to view and post content.


In a discussion of networks, ‘node’ refers to a processing location. A node can be a computer or some other device, such as a printer. Every node has a unique network address.


In reference to young people’s use of technology emphasises the fact that technology use is the ‘norm’ for the majority of people in this age group.

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Objectionable material

Defined in New Zealand by the Films, Videos and Publications Classification Act 1993. Broadly speaking, the act defines a publication to be objectionable if it deals with “matters such as sex, horror, crime, cruelty, or violence in such a manner that the availability of the publication is likely to be injurious to the public good.”

You can report objectionable material you encounter online at the Orb website, www.theorb.org.nz

Online grooming

Has the same goal as offline grooming, but differs in many ways, including giving the groomer access to more potential victims, access to more information (for example by reading someone’s blog or social networking profile), the ability to mask their true identity, potential for 24/7 access, covert access (less risk of discovery and use of technology such as spyware to gain information).

The perceived anonymity of the internet can make people take greater risks and allow relationships to develop faster.

Online world

Concerns actions which take place in cyberspace, as opposed to in the offline world.

Because many activities such as socialising, dating and shopping can be done both online and offline, many young people who have grown up with this do not consider the online world to be less real than the offline world.

Open source

Normally refers to software where the license permits distribution and modification of the original software – it is not copyrighted.

Operating system (OS)

The operating system (OS) of a computer or smartphone contains the electronic instructions that control the computer and run the programs.

This software is usually specific to a type of computer, for example Windows, Unix, Linux, Mac OS X, Android, iOS.

The OS controls the hardware and software and should be regularly updated with system or software ‘patches’ that fix security vulnerabilities.

Computer users should consider upgrading to the latest version of their operating system when a new type is released to benefit from security improvements as well as new features.

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A packet is a message fragment containing data or information. When messages are sent on the internet, they are broken into smaller, more easily transportable pieces called packets.

Each packet consists of a header (instructions) and a piece of the message. A single email may actually be broken into many different packets when being transmitted.


A requirement for many online (and offline) services, e.g. email and internet banking.

To access the service you need to provide the correct username and password to login.

NetSafe suggest your password should be a minimum of 15 characters long and contain a mix of upper and lower case letters and symbols.

You should keep your passwords secret and change them regularly – you can use a password management tool if you have difficulties remembering a unique password for each online service.

Peer-to-Peer Network (P2P)

P2P is a network configuration in which each computer on the network has the same capabilities as the other computers on the network and any one of them can initiate a communications session with another.

Any peer can add files, copy them, and move them to any peer computer on the network (where people store their files on their own computers). Therefore, any person on the network can access those files, copy them, and move the copies over the network to another computer.

The 2011 Copyright (Infringing File Sharing) Amendment Act is a significant change to the Copyright Act 1994 and provides rights owners with a special regime for taking enforcement action against New Zealanders who infringe copyright through file sharing, specifically targeting peer-to-peer technologies.


A malicious attack which can result in users being redirected from the intended website they wish to visit to a bogus website. This is often used to steal people’s personal information.

Pharming can be conducted either by changing the hosts file on a victim’s computer or by exploiting a vulnerability in DNS server software.

Drive-by pharming is where malware attempts to change the firmware or configuration software on a wireless router to redirect internet browsing – it is important to use a strong wireless router password and to ensure you do not leave the default, our of the box, login for the router administrator.


The illegal act of trying to obtain people’s personal details, such as logins and passwords.

Phishing uses techniques such as Social Engineering to persuade you to click on a fake link to an online service you use. The fake website then records or harvests your login details.

An example email may say ‘Your online banking has been compromised. Enter your login and password to ensure your security’ – this is one of the most common computer security scams that relies on the weakness of the end user to succeed.


Plug-ins are software pieces that add a specific feature or service to a larger system. For example, in order to view a PDF file, the Adobe Acrobat Reader® plug-in is required.

Software and browser plug-ins or ‘helper applications’ are very popular and as a result vulnerabilities can be can be targeted by cyber criminals as an easy way to breach your computer security.

NetSafe encourage you to update your software and all common plug-ins such as Adobe Reader and Flash to the latest version available.

Pop-up adverts

These are advertisements that appear in a separate browser window while a website is being viewed.


Generally contain information which users want to be displayed to other users, e.g. photos, nickname, date of birth, interests etc.

Your social networking profile forms part of your digital footprint and it is important to make use of privacy settings to restrict access to your personal information to friends that you trust.

Your public profiles may contain sensitive information that can be used to guess your passwords or for Social Engineering or Spear Phishing type attacks.

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Ransomware is a form of malware that is designed to lock your data or lock up your computer so you are forced to pay the creator a fee to restore access.

Your computer or server may display a warning screen about pornography or copyright infringing files that have caused the system to be locked.

The warning about being reported to the police is designed to scare you into paying the ‘fine’- do not do this.

Ensure you have backups of all your important data and protect your computer or server with patches and anti-virus.


Typically refers to the act of signing up to something, whether it be joining a forum, requesting to receive a newsletter or signing up for internet banking.

Try to ensure when registering for new online services that any data you send is encrypted – look for a secure SSL connection signalled by a padlock icon or https:// website address.

You should always investigate what use will be made of your personal information to protect your privacy and children should not reveal their full name, age or address.


A piece of hardware that redirects electronic traffic around a network.

Broadband routers sit between a network and the internet, sending and receiving data. Routers usually contain a built-in firewall, and can be either wireless, or wired (connected to other computers via cables).

The typical flow of incoming data from the internet on a small network is internet then router then server then other computers on the network.

Wireless routers should be protected by using strong encryption settings (WPA2), long and complex passphrases and by changing the default admin login.

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Search engine

Search tools such as Google make finding online information easier. They generally work by allowing users to enter key words or phrases to retrieve relevant information.

Search results for some keywords can return adult material and parents can investigate safe search options to try to filter content.

Occasionally websites that feature high in result lists can contain false information or try to download malware onto your machine so it is important to keep your browser and computer system and software up to date.


In computer terms, this refers to sharing files such as music, images or video files.

Sharing can be done in many ways including physical media (CDs/USB sticks) and over local, internet and Peer 2 Peer networks.

Sharing files with others can result in the transmission of computer viruses or other malware infections so it is important to use up to date anti-virus software on your machine, to update your system and software and to regularly backup your important data.

SMiShing / SMS phishing

SMS phishing uses mobile phone text messages to deliver the bait to trick people into divulging their personal information. Due to small device screens which hide phishing URLs and the urgency of many messages, smishing can often be more effective.

A text message may direct the recipient to a seemingly legitimate website that asks you to “confirm” or enter your personal financial information such as your credit or debit card number, your CVV code (on the back of your credit card), your ATM card PIN, driving licence number, email address or other personal information.

Alternatively, you may be requested to reply by text or call a phone number that directs to a legitimate-sounding automated voice system, similar to those used by your bank, which will ask for the same kinds of personal information.

Text spam or smishing should be reported to the DIA. Do not click on website links or reply or attempt to ‘stop’ these kinds of texts, simply delete them.

Social Engineering

In computer terms, this refers to techniques designed to manipulate people in some way.

A common example used in phishing scams are fake emails designed to get the unsuspecting computer user to login to a fake banking website to expose their private information.

Oversharing your personal information on social networking sites or failing to make use of privacy settings can leave you exposed to more attacks.

Social Networking

Facebook is the most popular current example but there are many websites that allow users to set up a profile about themselves.

These profiles generally contain information about interests (as well as age, gender, etc.), and allow users to make friends with people.


Refers to programs operating on a computer, which interact with other pieces of software (such as the operating system) and hardware to allow the computer to perform tasks.

Computer software vulnerabilities are sought out by cyber criminals to get access to your personal information, destroy data or make your computer part of a botnet.

It is important to update your software regularly and to turn on auto updates where possible to avoid leaving security holes open.


Spam is electronic junk mail or junk newsgroup postings. Some people define spam even more generally as being any unsolicited email. In addition to being a nuisance, spam also takes up considerable network bandwidth

NZ businesses and individuals are able to make complaints about spam to the Department of Internal Affairs’ Anti-Spam Compliance team at www.theorb.org.nz


The act of impersonating something or someone. For example, it is possible to falsify your email, IP address or website address to imitate somebody else’s.

Spoofing is often used for malicious purposes such as phishing and may be used by criminals involved in identity theft.


Spyware is software that gathers information about people or organisations without their knowledge, to relay to advertisers or other interested parties. Typically it profiles a user’s web habits for marketing purposes.

A computer can get infected by spyware if the user installs rogue shareware programs. Most of these programs earn revenue by including the monitoring software in their distribution, and the makers will offer their programs ‘free’ to the user to encourage downloads

Up to date internet security software can help protect your machine from common spyware programs.

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Refers to communication protocols used to connect hosts or computers on the Internet.

TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol, which is the main protocol in an IP (Internet Protocol) network.

Whereas the IP deals solely with packet switching, TCP/IP allows two hosts to communicate with long streams of data at one time, always guaranteeing the packets arrive in the correct order.

Temporary (Temp) files

Temporary files are created by applications such as Microsoft Word while a document is being created. These generally are erased when the document is saved or closed. However, in some cases a temporary file remains (generally with the file extension .tmp).

Temporary Internet Files are files that have been ‘collected’ while visiting Internet sites and these are usually stored (cached) on the local computer in the Temporary Internet Files directory.

Trojan/Trojan Horse

A type of malware which appears to be benign, but when executed (activated by the user) they are actually harmful. Trojans cannot activate themselves.

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Universal Resource Locator (URL)

A World Wide Web address composed of several parts indicating the protocol, the server where the ‘resource’ (such as a web page) resides, and possibly the path, and the file name of the resource.

An example of a URL is https://www.netsafe.org.nz, which is NetSafe’s URL.


Refers to the process of sending information via electronic means. This can include sending an email or publishing data such as a video on a website such as YouTube.


Sockets were designed to standardise the way in which external devices were connected to computers, e.g. USB drives (external hard-drives), USB cameras and USB coffee warmers.

USB data sticks are a popular and cheap way to backup, store and transfer files but they can also be easily lost, hacked or infected.

Always encrypt important data on USB sticks and scan these storage devices and the data they carry for viruses and malware.

Use agreement

Refers to an agreement – written or verbal – detailing acceptable use of a given device or service.

NetSafe has templates for schools, businesses and community groups covering the usage of technology equipment to improve cyber safety and security processes.

User account

The relationship between a computer or network and a user.

The user account defines such things as access to email accounts or sensitive data. User accounts can also be used to customise how a computer interface (desktop) appears when a user logs on.

User accounts can be set up on individual computers or for networks on the server. Each computer user should ideally have a unique user account and parents can combine these with parental control tools to set times and internet access limits.


Are a requirement for many online (and offline) services, e.g. email and internet banking. To access the service you must provide the correct username and password.

It is common for many services to set your email address as your username so be sure to choose a unique and strong 15 character password for every login you create.

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A type of malware which can self-replicate and modify themselves. Viruses require user interaction in order to spread between computers.

Many viruses are designed to cause problems such as deleting data or crashing computers. Some are designed to display messages, or send spam to other computers.

Anti-virus software can clean viruses from computers and protect against re-infection – it is essential to keep virus definition files up to date.

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One page in a website. Webpages may contain text, audio and video content and are viewed using a web browser.

Some webpages can be infected or designed on purpose to download malware or malicious software onto the visitor’s computer.

It is important to always use an up to date browser and to keep your system and software updated to help avoid ‘drive-by downloads’.


A collection of webpages, with a common host.

Some websites can be infected, designed to download malware onto the visitor’s computer or to impersonate a genuine online service for phishing attacks.

It is important to always use an up to date browser and to keep your system and software updated to help avoid ‘drive-by downloads’.


A list of websites, terms or email addresses which have been identified as appropriate and will not be filtered.


Generally refers to wireless networks that allow multiple internet capable devices to share an internet connection.

It is important to secure wireless networks to avoid eavesdropping, hacking and freeloaders.

Use strong WPA2 encryption on your router, choose a strong passphrase for the network connection and change the default login details.

Remember to be cautious when joining free public Wi-Fi hotpsots and avoid shopping, banking online or reading sensitive emails.


In computer terms this relates to your browser. When you open your browser, the page you see is called a window; the content in the window is the webpage.


Documents and other data remain on the hard drive (or other storage such as a USB stick or tape) even after they have been deleted.

Wiping is the term used to describe the running of a piece of specialist software which overwrites the data at least seven times to ensure it can never be retrieved.

Wireless network

A network of computers linked together using radio waves rather than cables.

It is important to secure wireless networks to avoid eavesdropping, hacking and freeloaders.

Use strong WPA2 encryption on your router, choose a strong passphrase for the network connection and change the default login details.

Remember to be cautious when joining free public Wi-Fi hotpsots and avoid shopping, banking online or reading sensitive emails.


A type of malware. Worms are self-replicating and do not require user interaction to spread between computers.

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In computing terms, zombies are computers which are under the control of a bot.

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